To finalize the concept notes for IWRM packages and Catchment Plan Implementation Projects (CPIPs), additional data were collected in the four demonstration catchments to address specific issues identified in those catchments.
Additional data were collected after several meetings with catchments taskforces during which each catchment was able to discuss priority projects that will promote Integrated Water Resources Management.
Although all catchments taskforces selected priority projects, it was important to verify facts and re assess the relevance of the specific CPIPs for the catchment.
In Muvumba catchment additional data were collected in Mulindi Sub-catchment, Upper and Lower Muvumba Sub-Catchments and Ngoma sub catchment.
According to the findings, the Upper and Lower Muvumba sub-catchments face land degradation and recurrent droughts leading to water scarcity and competition among water users. Mulindi sub-catchment especially in Mulindi tea plantation areas faces floods in the wet season and drought in dry season that affect green tea production; and insufficient sustainable fire wood which negatively impacts on local tea productivity. Ngoma sub-catchment also has issues of reduction of the Ngoma river flow during the dry season : the Hydro power plant stops for 7hours/day and the Water Treatment Plant works at half of its capacity due to water shortage. During the rainy season, sediment transport hinders the normal operation of the HPP and the WTP.
Several IWRM measures have been identified which mainly focus on the promotion of good water management for Tea plantation, rain water harvesting and small-scale irrigation, afforestation, reducing sediments load in rivers, support Hydropower dam rehabilitation as well as supporting the construction of new water intake in Ngoma sub-catchment and transboundary IWRM.
For the Upper Nyabarongo, a field visit has been organised in different sites of the catchment (Mbirurume, Kiryango, Nyabarongo hydropower and Mwogo) to collect additional data to specify key interventions for the finalization of the concept note of CPIPs in the identified packages.
During the visit, degradation in the river beds and banks has been noted including flooding, river bed excavation, banks sliding in the meanders and exacerbated by human activities which include mining and quarrying.
The team also collected data on livestock and field fertility where the findings showed that the availability of manure is the main constraint for the success for new terraces fertility restoration.
It was also recommended to always include manure in the works specifications and to help farmers to produce manure for maintaining fertility.
“It is highly recommended to include the livestock component as a requirement in the Landscape Rehabilitation areas. This could be implemented in the frame of livestock and agriculture integrated farming system to maximize positive impacts expected from the terraced areas,” reads a part of the report.
While in Nyabugogo catchment, the team visited Muhazi sub catchment and Mwange sub catchment.
They observed Fish farming and fish value chain around lake Muhazi, land use, agricultural value chains, water users and state of degradation and protection in the Muhazi area, extreme weather events, the buffer zone around the lake, Gullies from the Gihembe refugee camp in Gicumbi, Drainage and gullies from (new) roads Kisaro sector, state of terracing agro forestry/ erosion, Muyanza dam and surrounding.
The team recommends that the CPIP in Mwange Sub-catchment could include terracing of areas in the catchment that still lack terraces and in other places existing terraces could be improved by adding agroforestry. In addition, it is necessary to include few measures related to reducing runoff and gully protection.
The same exercise was done also in Sebeya catchment and the team was able to collect necessary data from Kanama and Nyabirasi where Water for Growth has implemented terracing projects.
During the visit the team managed to visit Sebeya River and its tributaries, check the status of Progressive terraces vis a vis improved bench terraces and conducted interviews with stakeholders and farmers.
Speaking to the team, one of the farmers in Nyabirasi sector-Gacaca village said “All our soil used to be washed away after it rains, but now pretty much all the soil is retained. I can even see that maize yields are almost doubling.”
In their recommendations, the team noted that improved bench terraces have a positive impact to protect the soil against the erosion in addition to proven increase in soil productivity. However, it has been observed that the improved bench terraces can be supplemented by other sustainable agricultural practices for better results.
New terraces should be protected and carefully maintained, especially during the first two years.
Looking at the turbidity and sediments load in Sebeya river, the river looks to be highly exposed to pollutants. A study is required to trace the types and sources of pollutants of Sebeya river.
“This is a necessity for water quality and the ecosystem they maintain both in Sebeya and Lake Kivu where it flows directly,” the report says.