The Sebeya River Catchment catchment has steep slopes and erodible soils. The rainfall intensity is high and short-duration storms occur regularly. The river valleys and valley bottoms are comparatively narrow, although there are sizeable floodplains as well. A number of smaller rivers with fairly steep slopes contribute to the main river.
A dense and rapidly expanding population in the catchment means land is scarce, giving people little choice as to where the live and farm. Primary economic activities include small-scale agriculture, tea cultivation, artisanal mining and river mining for construction materials. The catchment is also home to the Regideso Hydroelectric Plant, Bralirwa Brewery and methane gas extraction from Lake Kivu.